COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL BOOK PDF

adminComment(0)

PDF | 4 hours read | On Nov 9, , Jeleel Adekunle ADEBISI and others published FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER STUDIES. FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER STUDIES. Book · November with , Reads. Cite this. All the content and graphics published in this e-book are the property of Tutorials Point (I) . COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS ─ CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT. This course doesn't follow any particular book exactly, but any of the following are useful: – Computer Organization & Design (4th Ed),. Patterson and Hennessy.


Computer Fundamental Book Pdf

Author:MADIE SUMMARS
Language:English, German, Hindi
Country:Fiji
Genre:Lifestyle
Pages:687
Published (Last):14.07.2016
ISBN:311-9-72578-947-7
ePub File Size:26.44 MB
PDF File Size:18.64 MB
Distribution:Free* [*Sign up for free]
Downloads:49700
Uploaded by: WILMA

Computer Fundamental for BBA, inglobseclucog.cf and BCA .. Late s: Net books Another recent progression in computing history is the Transmitting those documents over the Internet is now easier than ever with the PDF file format. Try a pdf. The purpose of this chapter is to introduce you to the “computer”. This book deals only with the digital computer and uses the term computer for them. Jun 3, Download Book names as Computer Fundamentals – by inglobseclucog.cf easily without any login or registration. Here we are providing the whole.

Chapter 1 includes the concept, types and importance of computer. Chapter 2 includes computer organisation and concept of hardware, software has been discussed. Chapter 3 includes number system of computer has been discussed in detailed. Chapter 4 includes input devices of computer and its importance usage in computer have been discussed.

Chapter 5 include various output devices of computer and its importance have been discussed. Various types of memory and ports are discussed in chapter 6. Chapter 7 various storage device like magnetic and optical have been discussed. Chapter 8 includes the computer software and its types. Transistors allowed computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, energy efficient and reliable. The second generation computers used magnetic core technology for primary memory.

They used magnetic tapes and magnetic disks for secondary storage. The input was still through punched cards and the output using printouts.

They used the concept of a stored program, where instructions were stored in the memory of computer. It is easier to write instructions in assembly language, as compared to writing instructions in machine language. Computing Characteristics The computation time was in microseconds.

Physical Appearance Transistors are smaller in size compared to vacuum tubes, thus, the size of the computer was also reduced.

Application The cost of commercial production of these computers was very high, though less than the first generation computers. The transistors had to be assembled manually in second generation computers. Second generation computers generated a lot of heat but much less than the first generation computers. They required less maintenance than the first generation computers. In an IC chip, multiple transistors are placed on a silicon chip.

Silicon is a type of semiconductor. The use of IC chip increased the speed and the efficiency of computer, manifold. The keyboard and monitor were used to interact with the third generation computer, instead of the punched card and printouts.

Operating system allowed different applications to run at the same time. High-level languages were used extensively for programming, instead of machine language and assembly language. Computing Characteristics The computation time was in nanoseconds. Physical Appearance The size of these computers was quite small compared to the second generation computers. Application Computers became accessible to mass audience. Computers were produced commercially, and were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.

The third generation computers used less power and generated less heat than the second generation computers. The cost of the computer reduced significantly, as individual components of the computer were not required to be assembled manually. The maintenance cost of the computers was also less compared to their predecessors. Thousands of transistors are integrated on a small silicon chip using LSI technology. VLSI allows hundreds of thousands of components to be integrated in a small chip.

This era is marked by the development of microprocessor. A microprocessor chip is shown in Figure 1. This generation of computers gave rise to Personal Computer PC. Semiconductor memory replaced the earlier magnetic core memory, resulting in fast random access to memory. Secondary storage device like magnetic disks became smaller in physical size and larger in capacity.

The linking of computers is another key development of this era. The computers were linked to form networks that led to the emergence of the Internet. This generation also saw the development of pointing devices like mouse, and handheld devices. GUI is a user-friendly interface that allows user to interact with the computer via menus and icons. High-level programming languages are used for the writing of programs. Computing Characteristics The computation time is in picoseconds.

Physical Appearance They are smaller than the computers of the previous generation.

Some can even fit into the palm of the hand. Application They became widely available for commercial purposes.

Personal computers became available to the home user. Examples The Intel chip was the first microprocessor. In , IBM introduced the first computer for home use. In , Apple introduced the Macintosh. The microprocessor has resulted in the fourth generation computers being smaller and cheaper than their predecessors. The fourth generation computers are also portable and more reliable. They generate much lesser heat and require less maintenance compared to their predecessors.

GUI and pointing devices facilitate easy use and learning on the computer. Networking has resulted in resource sharing and communication among different computers. These computers have large memory requirements. This generation of computers uses parallel processing that allows several instructions to be executed in parallel, instead of serial execution.

The cost of these computers can vary from a few thousand dollars to several hundred thousand dollars. They possess most of the features found on mainframe computers, but on a more limited scale. They can store a tremendous amount of information, but again usually not as much as the mainframe. Medium and small businesses typically use these computers.

Microcomputers are the types of computers we are using in your classes at Floyd College. These computers are usually divided into desktop models and laptop models. They are terribly limited in what they can do when compared to the larger models discussed above because they can only be used by one person at a time, they are much slower than the larger computers, and they cannot store nearly as much information, but they are excellent when used in small businesses, homes, and school classrooms.

These computers are inexpensive and easy to use. They have become an indispensable part of modern life. Computer Architecture Computer architecture refers to the definition of basic attributes of hardware components and their interconnections, in order to achieve certain specified goals in terms of functions and performance.

The architecture basically defines the logical structure of a computer system. Without the CPU, you have no computer. Computer CPU's processors are composed of thin layers of thousands of transistors. Transistors are tiny, nearly microscopic bits of material that will block electricity when the the electricity is only a weak charge, but will allow the electricity pass through when the electricity is strong enough. The transistors transition from being a non-conductor resist the electricity to a conductor they conduct electricity when the electrical change is strong enough.

The material the transistor is made of loses its resistance to electricity and becomes a conductor when the electricity gets strong enough. The ability of these materials called semi-conductors to transition from a non-conducting to a conducting state allows them to take two electrical inputs and produce a different output only when one or both inputs are switched on.

A computer CPU is composed of millions and soon billions of transistors. Because CPU's are so small, they are often referred to as microprocessors. So, the terms processor, microprocessor and CPU are interchangeable. Modern CPU's are what are called 'integrated chips'. Each transistor is a receives a set of inputs and produces output. When one or more of the inputs receive electricity, the combined charge changes the state of the transistor internally and you get a result out the other side.

This simple effect of the transistor is what makes it possible for the computer to count and perform logical operations, all of which we call processing. A modern computer's CPU usually contains an execution core with two or more instruction pipelines, a data and address bus, a dedicated arithmetic logic unit ALU, also called the math co-processor , and in some cases special high-speed memory for caching program instructions from RAM.

Generations CPU manufacturers engineer new ways to do processing that requires some significant re-engineering of the current chip design. When they create this new design that changes the number of bits the chip can handle, or some other major way in which the chip performs its job, they are creating a new generation of processors. As of the time this tutorial was last updated , there were seven generations of chips, with an eighth on the drawing board. CPU Components A lot of components go into building a modern computer processor and just what goes in changes with every generation as engineers and scientists find new, more efficient ways to do old tasks.

A computer can process data, pictures, sound and graphics. They can solve highly complicated problems quickly and accurately. Input Unit: Computers need to receive data and instruction in order to solve any problem. Therefore we need to input the data and instructions into the computers. The input unit consists of one or more input devices. Keyboard is the one of the most commonly used input device.

Other commonly used input devices are the mouse, floppy disk drive, magnetic tape, etc. All the input devices perform the following functions. Storage Unit: The storage unit of the computer holds data and instructions that are entered through the input unit, before they are processed. It preserves the intermediate and final results before these are sent to the output devices. It also saves the data for the later use.

The various storage devices of a computer system are divided into two categories. Primary Storage: Stores and provides very fast. This memory is generally used to hold the program being currently executed in the computer, the data being received from the input unit, the intermediate and final results of the program.

The primary memory is temporary in nature. The data is lost, when the computer is switched off. In order to store the data permanently, the data has to be transferred to the secondary memory. Therefore most computers have limited primary storage capacity.

Secondary Storage: Secondary storage is used like an archive. It stores several programs, documents, data bases etc. The programs that you run on the computer are first transferred to the primary memory before it is actually run. Whenever the results are saved, again they get stored in the secondary memory. The secondary memory is slower and cheaper than the primary memory. Some of the commonly used secondary memory devices are Hard disk, CD, etc.

All digital computers use the binary system, i. Each character or a number is represented by an 8 bit code. The set of 8 bits is called a byte. A character occupies 1 byte space. A numeric occupies 2 byte space. Byte is the space occupied in the memory.

The size of the primary storage in a typical PC usually starts at 16MB. Output Unit: The output unit of a computer provides the information and results of a computation to outside world. Other commonly used output devices are floppy disk drive, hard disk drive, and magnetic tape drive. Arithmetic Logical Unit: It also does comparison and takes decision. Whenever calculations are required, the control unit transfers the data from storage unit to ALU once the computations are done, the results are transferred to the storage unit by the control unit and then it is send to the output unit for displaying results.

There are 4 types of arithmetic operations that the CPU can perform Addition 2. Subtraction 3. Multiplication 4. This is simply a comparison operation. It can compare numbers, letters, and some special characters. The CPU will then take action based on the outcome of this operation. This is central to the CPU and allows it to be able to tell you things like Control Unit: It controls all other units in the computer.

The control unit instructs the input unit, where to store the data after receiving it from the user. It controls the flow of data and instructions from the storage unit to ALU. It also controls the flow of results from the ALU to the storage unit.

Get FREE access by uploading your study materials

The control unit is generally referred as the central nervous system of the computer that control and synchronizes its working. Central Processing Unit: The CPU is like brain performs the following functions: Related Posts: What are its functions? The computer will be of no use unless it is able to communicate with the outside world.

Input Devices: Output Devices: It consists of a set of keys mounted on a board. The functions assigned to these keys differ from one software package to another. These keys are also user programmable keys. Special-function Keys These keys have special functions assigned to them and can be used only for those specific purposes.

Functions of some of the important keys are defined below. It is used to enter a space at the current cursor location. This key is used to move the cursor one position to the left and also delete the character in that position. It is used to delete the character at the cursor position. Insert key is used to toggle between insert and overwrite mode during data entry. This key is used to type capital letters when pressed along with an alphabet key.

Also used to type the special characters located on the upper-side of a key that has two characters defined on the same key. Caps Lock: Cap Lock is used to toggle between the capital lock features. Tab is used to move the cursor to the next tab position defined in the document.

Also,it is used to insert indentation into a document. Also like the control key, Alt key is always used in combination with other keys to perform specific tasks. This key is usually used to negate a command. Also used to cancel or abort executing programs. Numeric Keypad: This keypad is provided to support quick entry for numeric data.

Fundamental of Computer

Cursor Movement Keys: These are arrow keys and are used to move the cursor in the direction indicated by the arrow up, down, left, right. The mouse is a small device used to point to a particular place on the screen and select in order to perform one or more actions. It can be used to select menu commands, size windows, start programs etc. The most conventional kind of mouse has two buttons on top: Mouse Actions Left Click: Used to select an item. Double Click: Used to start a program or open a file.

Right Click: Usually used to display a set of commands. Drag and Drop: It allows you to select and move an item from one location to another. To achieve this place the cursor over an item on the screen, click the left mouse button and while holding the button down move the cursor to where you want to place the item, and then release it. Joystick is used as an input device primarily used with video games, training simulators and controlling robots d Scanner Scanner is an input device used for direct data entry from the source document into the computer system.

It converts the document image into digital form so that it can be fed into the computer. Capturing information like this reduces the possibility of errors typically experienced during large data entry. Hand-held scanners are commonly seen in big stores to scan codes and price information for each of the items. They are also termed the bar code readers. Bar Code Readers are used to input data from bar codes. Most products in shops have bar codes on them. Bar code readers work by shining a beam of light on the lines that make up the bar code and detecting the amount of light that is reflected back.

It is quite like the mouse in its functionality but uses a light pen to move the pointer and select any object on the screen by pointing to the object. Common examples of touch screen include information kiosks, and bank ATMs.

Pictures taken using a digital camera are stored inside its memory and can be transferred to a computer by connecting the camera to it. A digital camera takes pictures by converting the light passing through the lens at the front into a digital image. To operate it we require using a microphone to talk to the computer. Also we need to add a sound card to the computer. A speech recognition program can process the input and convert it into machine- recognized commands or input. The monitor is associated with a keyboard for manual input of characters and displays the information as it is keyed in.

It also displays the program or application output. Like the television, monitors are also available in different sizes. Its advantages like low energy consumption, smaller and lighter have paved its way for usage in portable computers laptops. Based on the technology used, they can be classified as Impact or Non-impact printers. Impact printers use the typewriting printing mechanism wherein a hammer strikes the paper through a ribbon in order to produce output. Dot-matrix and Character printers fall under this category.

Non-impact printers do not touch the paper while printing. They use chemical, heat or electrical signals to etch the symbols on paper. Inkjet, DeskJet, Laser, Thermal printers fall under this category of printers. When we talk about printers we refer to two basic qualities associated with printers: Print resolution is measured in terms of number of dots per inch dpi. Print speed is measured in terms of number of characters printed in a unit of time and is represented as characters-per-second cps , lines- per-minute lpm , or pages-per-minute ppm.

It interprets computer commands and makes line drawings on paper using multicolored automated pens. It is capable of producing graphs, drawings, charts, maps etc.

Sound Cards and Speakers: The Audio output is the ability of the computer to output sound. Two components are needed: Sound card — Plays contents of digitized recordings, Speakers — Attached to sound card. It gives a detailed listing of the various types of input devices and the output devise. First Generation Computers: The First Generation Computers was marked by the use of vacuum tubes for the electronic components and by the use of electrostatic tubes or mercury delay lines for storage.

The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions.

First generation computers relied on machine language to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts.

Census Bureau in Their outstanding features were: Quite large, generated lot of heat and required special housing.

The medium of internal storage was magnetic drum. Punched cards and paper tapes were used for secondary storage. Continuous maintenance is required; produces lot of heat hence requires special air conditioning. Applications-pay roll and other single applications in large companies. Uses batch processing technology, to process the data. Jack St. Clair Kilby and Robert Noyce of Texas Instruments manufactured the first integrated circuit, or chip, which is a collection of tiny little transistors.

Second Generation Computers: The second generation computers are initially marked by either magnetic drum or magnetic core storage and later by the use of the transistor in the place of vacuum tubes. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers.

The transistor was invented in but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 50s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors.

Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output. Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology.

Main features of the second generation computers are: Magnetic core was used as primary storage device and tape as secondary storage. Used transistor circuits, hence the size of the computer was small compared to that of first generation computer. Greater reliability and higher speed, when compared to that of first generation computers.

Uses high level procedural languages viz. They are small, faster and required less power to operate.

Payroll, Inventory, Accounts Receivable, in large and medium sized companies: Thomas Kurtz and Dr. John Kemeny.

Computer Fundamentals by Anita Goel Full Book.pdf - 1...

Third Generation Computers The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory.

Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors. The following are the features of this generation: Further reductions in size of computer. Increased internal core memory capacity. Processor speeds are rated in nano seconds. The use of high level languages became common e.

Multiprogramming operating system was developed. Magnetic disk was used as secondary storage. Transistors were replaced with integrated circuits — hence increased miniaturization. Computers were capable of performing both scientific and business tasks with high speed and reliability. Input and Output devices are improved. Order Processing, air line reservation, real-time inventory control etc.

Uses online, real time processing and multiprogramming operating system. The Internet is started. Ted Hoff developed the famous Intel microprocessor G chip. Intel released the first microprocessor, a specialized integrated circuit which was able to process four bits of data at a time. It also included its own arithmetic logic unit. Fourth Generation Computers: The introduction of micro technology and significant software developments, Micro technology gave rise to the development of micro computers, work processors and intelligent terminals.

The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. In IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in Apple introduced the Macintosh.

Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors. As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices.

Features of this fourth generation are: Integrated Circuits are replaced with very large scale integrated circuits. Semiconductors used as primary storage. Dramatic decrease in the size of computer — development of micro computers, personal computer.

Development of electronic spread sheet. Development of database management systems. Development of distributed data bases and virtual storage operating system.

Increased use of data communications and computer networks. The computers are compact, faster, and cheaper and are more reliable.

Corporate modeling, decision support system, electronic funds transfer, electronic spread sheet, word processing and small business applications. So they did and from the sale, Microsoft was born. Cray developed the Cray-I supercomputer G.

Jobs and Wozniak designed and built the first Apple II microcomputer. Apple III was also released. Time magazine chooses the computer instead of a person for its "Machine of the Year. Apple introduced the Macintosh computer, which incorporated a unique graphical interface, making it easy to use. Compaq released the DeskPro computer, the first to use the microprocessor. A nondestructive worm was introduced into the Internet network bringing thousands of computers to a halt. The Intel became the world's first 1,, transistor microprocessor.

The Energy Star program, endorsed by the Environmental Protection Agency EPA , encouraged manufacturers to build computer equipment that met power consumption guidelines. When guidelines are met, equipment displays the Energy Star logo. The same year, Several companies introduced computer systems using the Pentium microprocessor from Intel that contains 3.

Artificial Intelligence Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today.

The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come.

The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learn The Fifth Generation Computer Systems project FGCS was an initiative by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry, begun in , to create a "fifth generation computer" see history of computing hardware which was supposed to perform much calculation utilizing massive parallelism.

It aimed to create an "epoch-making computer" with supercomputer-like performance and usable artificial intelligence capabilities. The term fifth generation was intended to convey the system as being a leap beyond existing machines. Computers using vacuum tubes were called the first generation; transistors and diodes, the second; ICs, the third; and those using microprocessors, the fourth.

Whereas previous computer generations had focused on increasing the number of logic elements in a single CPU, the fifth generation, it was widely believed at the time, would instead turn to massive numbers of CPUs for added performance and self-organization. Future Computers since By the end of , the computers were used every where, in automobiles, appliances, business information systems, and military hardware.

With electronic technology advancing rapidly, the use of computers expected to grow in coming years. With the increased user requirements, the technology has evolved with outstanding features. Some of the important features of the future computers are: Future Computers use organic chips to process the data. Both the software and hardware costs are decreasing at a high speed, so that the computers can be used by every common man within the reach of common man. The computers have high speed, and storage capacity.

Has the capacity to make decisions. Auto decisions. Uses non procedural software, which is very user friendly. Artificial Intelligence, Robots, Large Scale Corporate modeling, oil exploration, star wars system and personal robots.

Advantage And Disadvantages The main advantages of computerizing the activities of business organization are as follows: Computerization helps in processing the data placed in several data files in no time. This is possible due to the high speed of computers for processing data and CPU of the computer works at the speed of electricity which is the highest ever attainable speed. The data processed by the computer are highly accurate.

The programs written on the system checks and controls data before and during processing. It detects invalid data and ensures high degree of accuracy and reliability of output reports. The modern digital computers can be used for a variety of purposes. Choice of Configuration: Wide ranges of peripherals are available for many computer systems, which allow business organization to select those which most suit its processing requirements.

Storage capacity: Large volumes of data can be conveniently stored, accessed and altered. Management information: They can be used to provide useful information of management for control and decision making.

Data Processing: Computer has lifted the heavy data processing constraint with the manual system and has opened up new avenues for planning, control and data experimentation. Computers can store volumes of data and can retrieve the desired information quickly. This is very useful in the areas like insurance, bank accounts etc where large number of documents is handled every day.

Computer facilities the establishment of database. Such a database integrates data records and reduces data redundancy. Reduction in paper work: The use of computers for data processing has helped the management of business organizations to cope with increasing problem of paper handling. The computers have speeded up the process and have eliminated the paper needs through the storage of data in elaborately constructed data bases and files.

Reduced cost: Though the initial investment for installing a computer is high, but it substantially reduces the cost of each of its transaction.

Cost reduction occurs due to processing of huge data and record keeping. Facilitates report preparation: Computer facilitates the preparation of various types of reports required by organizational executives for the purpose of decision making and control.

Reduce the space requirements: The use of computer for office activities reduces the requirements of office space which otherwise is required. Reduces the manpower requirement: The number of persons required for performing various organizational activities will be reduced by using a computer system. Increased ability to perform computations: Computers perform computations with a very high speed.

Being a machine, it does not suffer from boredom, tiredness or lack of concentration, even if millions of computations are to be performed by a computer. It performs the calculations with same accuracy and speed. Installing the computer requires a grueling and expensive task of system analysis and design. There is a scarcity of computer professionals to do this. Management tends to treat computer like ordinary equipment Viz. Computer pervades the working of the entire organization and unless managements involve themselves fully during the system development effort and the employees, the customers, the vendors etc.

The initial investment can be very high though this can be mitigated to some extent by the rental and tax concessions. The need to obtain stand by facilities in the event of breakdown of any computerized systems. Manual systems, though slow, are vastly flexible.

If the format of a report, for example has to be changed, it can be readily done by communicating the necessary instruction to the concerned staff whereas in a computerized system, this would have to go through all the stages of systems analysis and design before it is effected System Software And Application Software Software is a set of instructions, programs which enable the computer to perform specified task. In other words, software is nothing but binary code instructions which control the hardware.

In most of the organizations the computer is a valuable resource. Among the resources that a computer has are processing time, storage space, printers, terminals and information. The management of these resources is performed largely by a type of system software called an operating system. When users interact with the computer the interaction is with system software. System software is a set of programs that manage the resources of a computer system, so that they are used in an optimal fashion, provide routine services such as copying data from one file to another and assist in the development of applications programs.

System software consists of programs that assist the computer in the efficient control, support, development and execution of application programs. Application software on the other hand, performs specific tasks for the computer user.

System software: They can be broadly classified in to three types. System control programs control the execution of programs, manage the storage and processing resources of the computer and perform other management and monitoring functions.

Other examples are DBMS and communication monitors. System support programs provide routine service functions to the other computer programs and computer users. Libraries, utilities, job accounting etc. System development programs assist in the creation of application programs. System programs are developed and sold by both computer companies and specialized software firms. Application Software: It is a program written for, or by, a user to perform a specific job.

General purpose application software such as electronic spreadsheet has a wide application. Specific purpose application software, such as payroll and sales analysis is used only for the application for which it is designed. The system software controls the execution of the application software and provides other support functions such as data storage.

Computer Fundamental (Bangla Book)

What is an operating system? The operating system is a program that acts as an interface between the user and the hardware. It is a collection of programs that coordinates the operations of computer hardware and software.

Functions of an operating system:Compact Disc: Medium and small businesses typically use these computers. The card translates the data into audio signals, which are then sent to either the speakers or headphones. They can be connected to an audio-frequency source such as an amplifier or a CD player.

These early portable computers were portable only in the most technical sense of the word. A microprocessor chip is shown in Figure 1.