Inductosyn Transducers. Rotating Signal and Power Transfer. 1ft Deployment Devices. Luhrication of Components. The inductosyn is shown in Figure It consists Due to electronic rights, some third party content be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). The rotary inductosyn. Gyroscopes. Choice between rotational displacement transducers. Rotational.

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The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: Inductosyn is an assembly of a scale and slider on insulating substrates. The linear Inductosyn consists of two magnetically coupled parts; absolute orientation of the Inductosyn is determined by counting successive pitches in. How does a magnetic resolver (pattern based --like inductosyn) work? Any material Any ebooks / design ref etc would be helpful. Thanks.

Each of the RP processes focuses on specific market segments, taking into account their requirements for model size, durability, fabrication speed, and finish in the light of anticipated economic benefits and cost.

Some processes are not effective in making large models, and each process results in a model with a different finish. This introduces an economic tradeoff of higher price for smoother surfaces versus additional cost and labor of manual or machine finishing by sanding or polishing. Concept modeling addresses the early stages of the design process, whereas RT concentrates on production tooling or mold making. Some concept modeling equipment, also called 3D or office printers, are self-contained desktop or benchtop manufacturing units small enough and inexpensive enough to permit prototype fabrication to be done in an office environment.

Computer-Aided Design Preparation The RP process begins when the object is drawn on the screen of a CAD workstation or personal computer to provide the digital data base. Then, in a post-design data processing step, computer software slices the object mathematically into a finite number of horizontal layers in generating an STL Solid Transfer Language file.

The digitized data then guides a laser, X-Y table, optics, or other apparatus that actually builds the model in a process comparable to building a high-rise building one story at a time. Slice thickness might have to be modified in some RP processes during model building to compensate for material shrinkage.

Prototyping Choices All of the commercial RP methods depend on computers, but four of them depend on laser beams to cut or fuse each lamination, or provide enough heat to sinter or melt certain kinds of materials.

The movable platform on which the 3D model is formed is initially immersed in a vat of liquid photopolymer resin to a level just below its surface so that a thin layer of the resin covers it. The SL equipment is located in a sealed chamber to prevent the escape of fumes from the resin vat. The resin changes from a liquid to a solid when exposed to the ultraviolet UV light from a low-power, highly focused laser. The UV laser beam is focused on an X-Y mirror in a computer-controlled beam-shaping and scanning system so that it draws the outline of the lowest crosssection layer of the object being built on the film of photopolymer resin.

The laser beam can harden the layer down to a depth of 0. The laser beam scans at speeds up to in. The photopolymer not scanned by the laser beam remains a liquid. In general, the thinner the resin film slice thickness , the higher the resolution or more refined the finish of the completed model. When model surface finish is important, layer thicknesses are set for 0. The table is then submerged under computer control to the specified depth so that the next layer of liquid polymer flows over the first hardened layer.

The tracing, hardening, and recoating steps are repeated, layer-by-layer, until the complete 3D model is built on the platform within the resin vat. Figure 1 Stereolithography SL : A computer-controlled neon—helium ultraviolet light UV —emitting laser outlines each layer of a 3D model in a thin liquid film of UV-curable photopolymer on a platform submerged a vat of the resin. Photopolymer not exposed to UV remains liquid.

Augmented Reality for Sensors, Transducers and Actuators

The model is them removed for finishing. Without support, parts of the model can sag or break off before the polymer has fully set. Provision for forming these supports is included in the digitized fabrication data.

Each scan of the laser forms support layers where necessary while forming the layers of the model. The SL process leaves the model only partially polymerized, with only about half of its fully cured strength. The model is then finally cured by exposing it to intense UV light in the enclosed chamber of post-curing apparatus PCA. The UV completes the hardening or curing of the liquid polymer by linking its molecules in chainlike formations. Polymers such as urethane acrylate resins can be milled, drilled, bored, and tapped, and their outer surfaces can be polished, painted, or coated with sprayedon metal.

The liquid SL photopolymers are similar to the photosensitive UVcurable polymers used to form masks on semiconductor wafers for etching and plating features on integrated circuits. Resins can be formulated to solidify under either UV or visible light. The SL process was the first to gain commercial acceptance, and it still accounts for the largest base of installed RP systems.

Aaroflex, Inc. It begins when a photomask for the first layer of the 3D model is generated by the equipment shown at the far left. An electron gun writes a charge pattern of the photomask on a clear glass plate, and opaque toner is transferred electrostatically to the plate to form the photolithographic pattern in a xerographic process. Liquid photopolymer is applied to the work platform to form a layer, and the platform is moved under the photomask and a strong UV source that defines and hardens the layer.

The platform then moves to a station for excess polymer removal before wax is applied over the hardened layer to fill in margins and spaces. The first photomask is erased, and a second mask is formed on the same glass plate.

Masking and layer formation are repeated with the platform being lowered and moved back and forth under the stations until the 3D model is complete. The wax is then removed by heating or immersion in a hot water bath to release the prototype. The photomask is then moved to the exposure station, where it is aligned over a work platform and under a collimated UV lamp. Model building begins when the work platform is moved to the right to a resin application station where a thin layer of photopolymer resin is applied to the top surface of the work platform and wiped to the desired thickness.

The platform is then moved left to the exposure station, where the UV lamp is then turned on and a shutter is opened for a few seconds to expose the resin layer to the mask pattern. Because the UV light is so intense, the layer is fully cured and no secondary curing is needed. The platform is then moved back to the right to the wiper station, where all of resin that was not exposed to UV is removed and discarded. The platform then moves right again to the wax application station, where melted wax is applied and spread into the cavities left by the removal of the uncured resin.

The wax is hardened at the next station by pressing it against a cooling plate. After that, the platform is moved right again to the milling station, where the resin and wax layer are milled to a precise thickness. The platform piece is then returned to the resin application station, where it is lowered a depth equal to the thickness of the next layer and more resin is applied.

The complete cycle is repeated, and this will continue until the 3D model encased in the wax matrix is completed. This matrix supports any overhangs or undercuts, so extra support structures are not needed.

After the prototype is removed from the process equipment, the wax is either melted away or dissolved in a washing chamber similar to a dishwasher. The surface of the 3D model is then sanded or polished by other methods.

The SGC process is similar to drop on demand inkjet plotting, a method that relies on a dual inkjet subsystem that travels on a precision X-Y drive carriage and deposits both thermoplastic and wax materials onto the build platform under CAD program control. The drive carriage also energizes a flatbed milling subsystem for obtaining the precise vertical height of each layer and the overall object by milling off the excess material.

Cubital America Inc.

Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements

The prototype is fabricated in a cylinder with a piston, which acts as a moving platform, and it is positioned next to a cylinder filled with preheated powder. A piston within the powder delivery system rises to eject powder, which is spread by a roller over the top of the build cylinder.

Just before it is applied, the powder is heated further until its temperature is just below its melting point When the laser beam scans the thin layer of powder under the control of the optical scanner system, it raises the temperature of the powder even further until it melts or sinters and flows together to form a solid layer in a pattern obtained from the CAD data. As in other RP processes, the piston or supporting platform is lowered upon completion of each layer and the roller spreads the next layer of powder over the previously deposited layer.

The process is repeated, with each layer being fused to the underlying layer, until the 3D prototype is completed. The unsintered powder is brushed away and the part removed. No final curing is required, but because the objects are sintered they are porous.

Wax, for example, can be applied to the inner and outer porous Introduction Figure 3 Selective Laser Sintering SLS : Loose plastic powder from a reservoir is distributed by roller over the surface of piston in a build cylinder positioned at a depth below the table equal to the thickness of a single layer. The powder layer is then scanned by a computer-controlled carbon dioxide infrared laser that defines the layer and melts the powder to solidify it.

The cylinder is again lowered, more powder is added, and the process is repeated so that each new layer bonds to the previous one until the 3D model is completed. It is then removed and finished.

All unbonded plastic powder can be reused.

No supports are required in SLS because overhangs and undercuts are supported by the compressed unfused powder within the build cylinder. Many different powdered materials have been used in the SLS process, including polycarbonate, nylon, and investment casting wax. Polymer-coated metal powder is also being studied as an alternative. One advantage of the SLS process is that materials such as polycarbonate and nylon are strong and stable enough to permit the model to be used in limited functional and environmental testing.

The prototypes can also serve as molds or patterns for casting parts. SLS process equipment is enclosed in a nitrogen-filled chamber that is sealed and maintained at a temperature just below the melting point of the powder. The nitrogen prevents an explosion that could be caused by the rapid oxidation of the powder. The company makes a Sinterstation plus. The carbon-dioxide laser beam, directed by an optical system under CAD data control, cuts cross-sectional outlines of the prototype in the layers of paper, which are bonded to previous layers to become the prototype.

The paper that forms the bottom layer is unwound from a supply roll and pulled across the movable platform.

The laser beam cuts the outline of each lamination and cross-hatches the waste material within and around the lamination to make it easier to remove after the prototype is completed. The outer waste material web from each lamination is continuously removed by a take-up roll. Finally, a heated roller applies pressure to bond the adhesive coating on each layer cut from the paper to the previous layer. A new layer of paper is then pulled from a roll into position over the previous layer, and the cutting, cross hatching, web removal, and bonding procedure is repeated until the model is completed.

When all the layers have been cut and bonded, the excess cross-hatched material in the Figure 4 Laminated Object Manufacturing LOM : Adhesive-backed paper is fed across an elevator platform and a computer-controlled carbon dioxide infrared-emitting laser cuts the outline of a layer of the 3D model and cross-hatches the unused paper. As more paper is fed across the first layer, the laser cuts the outline and a heated roller bonds the adhesive of the second layer to the first layer.

When all the layers have been cut and bonded, the cross-hatched material is removed to expose the finished model. The complete model can then be sealed and finished. Introduction form of stacked segments is removed to reveal the finished 3D model. The models made by the LOM have woodlike finishes that can be sanded or polished before being sealed and painted. Using inexpensive, solid-sheet materials makes the 3D LOM models more resistant to deformity and less expensive to produce than models made by other processes, its developers say.

These models can be used directly as patterns for investment and sand casting, and as forms for silicone molds.

How does a magnetic resolver work ?

Moreover, the laser cutting process burns the paper, forming smoke that must be removed from the equipment and room where the LOM process is performed. Alternatives to paper including sheet plastic and ceramic and metal-powder-coated tapes have been developed. Schroff manufactures the JP System 5 to permit desktop rapid prototyping. This filament, with a diameter of 0. It is then extruded and deposited in ultrathin, precise layers on a fixtureless platform under X-Y computer control.

Successive laminations ranging in thickness from 0. Structures needed to support overhanging or fragile structures in FDM modeling must be designed into the CAD data file and fabricated as part of the model. These supports can easily be removed in a later secondary operation. All components of FDM systems are contained within temperaturecontrolled enclosures. Four different kinds of inert, nontoxic filament materials are being used in FDM: ABS polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene , high-impact-strength ABS ABSi , investment casting wax, and xxiii xxiv Introduction Figure 5 Fused Deposition Modeling FDM : Filaments of thermoplastic are unwound from a spool, passed through a heated extrusion nozzle mounted on a computercontrolled X-Y table, and deposited on the fixtureless platform.

The 3D model is formed as the nozzle extruding the heated filament is moved over the platform. The hot filament bonds to the layer below it and hardens. This laserless process can be used to form thinwalled, contoured objects for use as concept models or molds for investment casting. The completed object is removed and smoothed to improve its finish. The company offers four different systems. The material is heated and extruded through a 0. The models are built on a metallic substrate that rests on a table.

Stratasys also offers four systems that use spooled material. All of these systems can be used in an office environment. Stratasys offers two options for forming and removing supports: a breakaway support system and a water-soluble support system.

The Introduction water-soluble supports are formed by a separate extrusion head, and they can be washed away after the model is complete.

The powder supply cylinder is filled with starch and cellulose powder, which is delivered to the work platform by elevating a delivery piston.

Augmented Reality for Sensors, Transducers and Actuators

A roller rolls a single layer of powder from the powder cylinder to the upper surface of a piston within a build cylinder. A multichannel inkjet head sprays a water-based liquid adhesive onto the surface of the powder to bond it in the shape of a horizontal layer of the model. In successive steps, the build piston is lowered a distance equal to the thickness of one layer while the powder delivery piston pushes up fresh powder, which the roller spreads over the previous layer on the build pis- Figure 6 Three-Dimensional Printing 3DP : Plastic powder from a reservoir is spread across a work surface by roller onto a piston of the build cylinder recessed below a table to a depth equal to one layer thickness in the 3DP process.

Liquid adhesive is then sprayed on the powder to form the contours of the layer. The piston is lowered again, another layer of powder is applied, and more adhesive is sprayed, bonding that layer to the previous one. This procedure is repeated until the 3D model is complete. This process is repeated until the 3D model is complete.

Any loose excess powder is brushed away, and wax is coated on the inner and outer surfaces of the model to improve its strength. It also offers the Z 3D modeler. Soligen Technologies has modified the 3DP process to make ceramic molds for investment casting. Other companies are using the process to manufacture implantable drugs, make metal tools, and manufacture ceramic filters.

Consequently, the actual 3D model or prototype must be produced by a later casting process. Ceramic powder is spread by roller over the surface of a movable piston that is recessed to the depth of a single layer. Then a binder is sprayed on the ceramic powder under computer control.

The next layer is bonded to the first by the binder. When all of the layers are complete, the bonded ceramic shell is removed and fired to form a durable mold suitable for use in metal casting. The mold can be used to cast a prototype.

The DSPC process is considered to be an RP method because it can make molds faster and cheaper than conventional methods. SDU software also modifies the original design dimensions in the CAD file to compensate for ceramic shrinkage. This software can also add fillets and delete such features as holes or keyways that must be machined after the prototype is cast.

The movable platform in DSPC is the piston within the build cylinder. It is lowered to a depth below the rim of the build cylinder equal to the thickness of each layer. Then a thin layer of fine aluminum oxide alumina powder is spread by roller over the platform, and a fine jet of colloidal silica is sprayed precisely onto the powder surface to bond it in the shape of a single mold layer.

The piston is then lowered for the next layer and the complete process is repeated until all layers have been formed, completing the entire 3D shell. The excess powder is then removed, and the mold is fired to convert the bonded powder to monolithic ceramic.

After the mold has cooled, it is strong enough to withstand molten metal and can function like a conventional investment-casting mold.

After the molten metal has cooled, the ceramic shell and any cores or gating are broken away from the prototype. The casting can then be finished by any of the methods usually used on metal castings. The company also offers a custom mold manufacturing service.

Variations of it are also called inkjet methods. The molten plastic used to form the model and the hot wax for supporting overhangs or indentations are kept in heated tanks above the build station and delivered to computercontrolled jet heads through thermally insulated tubing.

The jet heads squirt tiny droplets of the materials on the work platform as it is moved by an X-Y table in the pattern needed to form each layer of the 3D object. The droplets are deposited only where directed, and they harden rapidly as they leave the jet heads.

A milling cutter is passed over the layer to mill it to a uniform thickness. Particles that are removed by the cutter are vacuumed away and deposited in a collector. Nozzle operation is monitored carefully by a separate fault-detection system. After each layer has been deposited, a stripe of each material is deposited on a narrow strip of paper for thickness measurement by opti- xxvii xxviii Introduction Figure 8 Ballistic Particle Manufacturing BPM : Heated plastic and wax are deposited on a movable work platform by a computer-controlled X-Y table to form each layer.

LS - Heidenhain ; Apr 1, Product Information.

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Glass scale with Cables and About this product See pictures for specifications from owners manual included with the scale. Product Key Features.

Show More Show Less Free shipping. I has a LS on the Y axis of my machine haven't yet checked the other I have a pdf file from heidenhain that explains some of the different models. ID Your best companion in cnc machine shop. At a company level, adopting a single repository of up-to-date information allows for better communication.

A nifty feature set increases teamwork, collaboration and accountability. Ed Sullivan is a technology writer based in Hermosa Beach, California.Moreover, the laser cutting process burns the paper, forming smoke that must be removed from the equipment and room where the LOM process is performed.

Each scan of the laser forms support layers where necessary while forming the layers of the model. Liquid adhesive is then sprayed on the powder to form the contours of the layer. It is currently funded by NSF, with completion scheduled for This paper presents the analysis of periodic nonlinear errors in a single-excitation petal-shaped encoder in terms of three main aspects—sensitive structure processing error, circuit demodulation error, and installation error.

These tools include 3D design tools like SolidWorks and Pro-Engineer and also new ways to produce prototypes of the mechanisms themselves. Bolzmacher C Polymer based actuators for virtual reality devices. Research and Development in RP Many different RP techniques are still in the experimental stage and have not yet achieved commercial status. A nifty feature set increases teamwork, collaboration and accountability.